Simple functional testing in Drupal 8 with Travis CI
I was inspired to test this out when I read this post by Lullabot. In many examples you can find online, you'll see a rather complex setting up process, usually including installing MySQL, Pear, Drush, and sometimes even a webserver.
I'm a big fan of SQLite in automated testing environments. It's much faster and simpler to set up, and usually comes pre-installed with many CI runners. Installing MySQL (or any other RDBS) is overkill, unless you use vendor-only functionality (which you shouldn't, if you can avoid it).
Many examples make use of PHP's built-in ability to serve pages, which is a great idea. Sure, it's not fast nor efficient. But it makes more than up for the fact that you don't have to install something like Apache or NginX.
Here's a working example for a module with functional tests. It is taken from part 3 of my Drupal 8 TDD tutorial (the bonus video).
Functional tests require a full Drupal site
Just as with kernel tests (see my previous article about using Travis CI and Sonarcloud here), we need a full Drupal code base. I find it convenient to use the Composer template for Drupal projects. It installs Drupal in a nice, flexible, and standard way, which is how I structure my Drupal 8 projects.
The only caveat is that, after getting the source code, your module code is no longer in the correct place. There are several ways around this, but I find it easiest to simply copy my module code to the correct location.
You could also
cd into another directory, like
/tmp, install Drupal there, and then create a symlink to
$TRAVIS_BUILD_DIR. But I'm afraid of potential future permission issues, in case Travis decides to change something in its default setup. Hence, I keep everything in the build directory, where I know we have full write permissions.
Note: if you're testing a full Drupal code base, then you obviously don't need this step, but would replace it with something like
composer install or
A working example
Here's our example
language: php php: - '7.0' - '7.1' cache: directories: - $HOME/.composer/cache/files install: # We need a full Drupal project for our functional tests to work. Create a new project. - composer create-project drupal-composer/drupal-project:8.x-dev drupal --stability dev --no-interaction # Our code is no longer in the correct place. Copy it over. - mkdir -p drupal/web/modules/form_validation && cp -a form_validation* tests src drupal/web/modules/form_validation # Run PHP as a webserver, in the background - (php -S localhost:8888 -t $(pwd)/drupal/web/ &) >> /dev/null 2>&1 script: - cd drupal/web && php ./core/scripts/run-tests.sh --php $(which php) --dburl sqlite://tmp/tests.sqlite --sqlite /tmp/tests.sqlite --url http://127.0.0.1:8888/ --directory modules/form_validation/tests/ --concurrency 4
Let's go over these lines:
language: php php: - '7.0' - '7.1'
These are no-brainers: we're telling Travis to run these tests in PHP 7.0 and 7.1 environments.
cache: directories: - $HOME/.composer/cache/files
Here we tell Travis CI to keep the Composer cache between builds, which greatly speeds things up.
install: - composer create-project drupal-composer/drupal-project:8.x-dev drupal --stability dev --no-interaction
This is where we download a full copy of Drupal. We use the Composer template for Drupal projects, and save it to a folder called
- mkdir -p drupal/web/modules/form_validation && cp -a form_validation* tests src drupal/web/modules/form_validation
Here, we copy all our code over to the
drupal/web/modules/form_validation directory. This is necessary for functional tests, which will only work if put under the Drupal root.
- (php -S localhost:8888 -t $(pwd)/drupal/web/ &) >> /dev/null 2>&1
Here, we use PHP's built-in webserver, and tell it to serve from our new webroot. We make it run in the background, and redirect all output to
At this point, we're all set up. Notice that this is very simple. If your project is a Drupal project, instead of a module like here, you could omit the part where we download core, and replace it with your own build mechanism.
script: - cd drupal/web && php ./core/scripts/run-tests.sh --php $(which php) --dburl sqlite://tmp/tests.sqlite --sqlite /tmp/tests.sqlite --url http://127.0.0.1:8888/ --directory modules/form_validation/tests/ --concurrency 4
Here we finally do the running part. There's a lot going on in there, so let me break it down into chunks:
Within the Travis CI runner,
--php $(which php)
core/scripts/run-tests.shseems to have some issues finding the PHP binaries. We use this to point it to correct location.
core/scripts/run-tests.shexpects a Drupal site to be installed, and will look for the default database in the
settings.phpfile. But we didn't install Drupal. Here, we simply point it to a dummy SQLite database file. It doesn't even need to exist; it's just to keep it from complaining.
Here we specify which database to use for the actual tests. Because we want to use SQLite, we have to use this
--sqliteoption, and cannot simply rely on
--dburl. Go figure.
Here we specify at what URL the site is running. This is necessary for the functional tests.
Here we specify where our tests are located. It's a bit easier than listing classes, or specifying a group.
Here we specify how many test classes to run in parallel. Depending on the CI environment and your use-case, you can adjust this value. If you start running into unexplainable errors, it may be because this value is too high, and tests start getting mixed up.
Note that, as opposed to my previous examples, here we don't use PHPUnit to run our tests. This is because Drupal's
core/scripts/run-tests.sh script can run tests in parallel, which is harder to achieve with PHPUnit. Furthermore, you cannot compute code coverage when running functional tests, so PHPUnit wouldn't really have added any value anyway.
As I've mentioned many times before, I'm not advocating the use of functional tests in Drupal projects. I really recommend you use unit and/or kernel tests instead. However, sometimes there really is no other option (like, when adding tests for existing code). And for those cases, knowing how to easily setup your favorite CI environment can be a real help.
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